Peer Reviewed Publications
R.B. Adams, “Mission Architectures for Achieving 0.1-0.2c Velocities”. Accepted for publication JBIS.
S. Baxter, “Project Icarus: Interstellar Spaceprobes and Encounters with Extraterrestrial Intelligence”, Accepted for publication JBIS.
S. Baxter, “Project Icarus: The Challenges of Mission Longevity”, JBIS, 63, No. 11/12, 2010.
S. Baxter, “Project Icarus: Three Roads to the Stars”, JBIS, 63, No. 11/12, 2010.
I.A. Crawford, “Project Icarus: A review of local interstellar medium properties of relevance for space missions to the nearest stars”, Acta Astronautica, 68, 7-8, 691-699, April-May 2011.
I.A. Crawford, ”Project Icarus: Astronomical Considerations Relating to the Choice of Target Star”, J. Brit. Interplanet. Soc., 63, 419-425, (2010).
I.A. Crawford, ”The Astronomical, Astrobiological and Planetary Science Case for Interstellar Spaceflight”, J. Brit. Interplanet. Soc., 62, 415-421, (2009).
A. Crowl, J.Hunt & A.Hein, “Embryo Space Colonization to overcome the Interstellar Time/Distance bottleneck”. Accepted for publication JBIS.
B. Cress, “Icarus Institute for Interstellar Sciences”, Accepted for publication JBIS.
D.A. Dulo, “Resilience Engineering in Critical Long Term Aerospace Software Systems: A New Approach to Spacecraft Software Safety”, Accepted for publication JBIS.
P. Galea, “Machine Learning and the Starship: A Match Made in Heaven”, Accepted for publication JBIS(2012).
P. Galea and R. Swinney, “Project Icarus: Mechanisms For Enhancing The Stability Of Gravitationally Lensed Interstellar Communications”", JBIS, 64, No. 1/2, 2011.
A. Hale, “Exoplanet Studies for Potential Icarus Destination Stars”, Accepted for publication JBIS.
Andreas M. Hein, “Evaluation of Technological/Social and Political Projections for the Next 100-300 Years and Implications for an Interstellar Mission”. Accepted for publication JBIS.
Andreas M. Hein, Andreas C. Tziolas and Richard Osborne, “Project Icarus: Stakeholder Scenarios For An Interstellar Exploration Program” JBIS, 64, No. 6/7, 2011.
K.F. Long, “Project Icarus: The first unmanned interstellar mission, robotic expansion & technological growth”, JBIS, 64. No.4. (2011).
K.F. Long, R.K.Obousy, A.Hein, “Project Icarus: Optimisation of nuclear fusion propulsion for interstellar missions”, Acta Astronautica, 68, pp. 1820-1829, (2011).
K.F. Long, R.K.Obousy and A Tziolas, “Project Icarus: The Origins and Aims of the Study”, JBIS, 64, No. 3, 2011.
K.F. Long, “Interstellar Institute for Aerospace Research: A Concept Proposal”, JBIS, 64, 5, pp.166-170, May 2011.
K.F. Long & R.K.Obousy, “Project Icarus: Project Programme Document (PPD) Overview Project Plan Covering Period 2009-2014, Incorporating Major Task Plan for Phase III Concept Design Covering Period May 2010 – April 2011, Internal Project Icarus Study Group Publication”, May 12 2010.
K.F. Long, M.Fogg, R.Obousy, A.Tziolas, A.Mann, R.Osborne, A.Presby. Project Icarus: Son of Daedalus – Flying Closer to Another Star. JBIS, 62 No. 11/12, pp403-416 Nov/Dec 2009.
R. K. Obousy, A. C. Tziolas, K. F. Long, P. Galea, A. Crowl, I.A. Crawford, R. Swinney, A. Hein, R. Osborne, P. Reiss, “Project Icarus: Progress Report On Technical Developments And Design Considerations”, Accepted for publication JBIS (2012).
R.K. Obousy, “Project Icarus: A 21st Century Interstellar Starship Study”, Accepted for publication JBIS.
R.K. Obousy, “Project Icarus: A Review of Interstellar Starship Designs”, Accepted for publication JBIS.
R. K. Obousy, “Vacuum to Antimatter-Rocket Interstellar Explorer System (VARIES) A Proposed Program for an Interstellar Rendezvous and Return Architecture“, JBIS 64 No.11/12 pp 378-386 (2011)
R. K. Obousy, “Could Antimatter be Generated and Stored in Sufficient Quantities to Assist with an Interstellar Mission?“, Project Icarus Internal Report, Phase 3 Primary Propulsion, 2011.
R. K. Obousy, “Evaluation of Antiproton Catalyzed Fusion for Interstellar Propulsion“, Project Icarus Internal Report, Phase 3 Primary Propulsion, 2011.
M. Stanic, “Project Icarus: Nuclear Fusion Propulsion Concept Comparison”, accepted to JBIS, Nov 2012.
Swinney, R.W, K.F.Long, A.Hein, P.Galea, A.Mann, A.Crowl, R.Obousy, A.C.Tziolas, “Project Icarus: Exploring the Interstellar Roadmap Using the Icarus Pathfinder and Starfinder Probe Concepts”. Accepted for publication JBIS.
Robert Swinney, Kelvin F. Long and Pat Galea “Project Icarus: Son Of Daedalus — Flying Closer To Another Star — A Technical Update And Programme Review“, JBIS 64 No.11/12 pp 358-371 (2011)
A. Tziolas, “Starflight Academy: Education in Interstellar Engineering“, JBIS, Vol 65, pp. 294-305, 2012.
A. Tziolas, A. Crowl, K. Konstantinidis, ”Project Tin Tin – Interstellar Nano Mission To Alpha Centauri”, IAC-12-D1.1.1, 2012.
A. Cardon, “Ideal Biological Characteristics for Long-Duration Manned Space Travel”, Presented at Starship Congress in Dallas, August 2013.
A. Crowl & J. Hunt, “How an Embryo Space Colonization (ESC) Mission Solves the Time-Distance Problem”, Presented at the One Hundred Year Starship Conference in Orlando, October 2011.
A. Hale, “Exoplanet Studies for Potential Icarus Destination Stars”, Presented at the One Hundred Year Starship Conference in Orlando, October 2011.
A.M. Hein, “Project Hyperion: Disruptive Technologies for Manned Interstellar Travel”, Presented at Starship Congress in Dallas, August 2013.
A.M. Hein, “Exploratory Research for an Interstellar Mission – Technology Readiness, Stakeholders and Research Sustainability”, Presented at the One Hundred Year Starship Conference in Orlando, October 2011.
A.M. Hein, “Technology, Society and Politics in the Next 100-300 Years – Implications for an Interstellar Flight”, Presented at the One Hundred Year Starship Conference in Orlando, October 2011.
A.Hein, A.Crowl, A.Tziolas, “Project Icarus: Architecture development for atmospheric Helium 3 mining of the outer solar system gas planets for space exploration and power generation.” Presented Prague 61st IAC September 2010.
A.Hein, A.Tziolas, R.Osborne, “Project Icarus: Stakeholder analysis and prediction of technological maturity of key technologies for the development of the Icarus interstellar probe.” Presented Prague 61st IAC September 2010.
A. Papazian, “Money Mechanics for Space”, Presented at Starship Congress in Dallas, August 2013.
A. Tziolas, “Project Tin-Tin: Interstellar Nanoprobes“, Presented at Starship Congress in Dallas, August 2013.
A. Tziolas, “Long Term Computing”, Presented at the One Hundred Year Starship Conference in Orlando, October 2011.
A. Tziolas, “Starflight Academy – Education in Interstellar Engineering”, Presented at the One Hundred Year Starship Conference in Orlando, October 2011.
A. Tziolas, “Project Icarus: Candidate Technologies for Interstellar propulsion“, Presented at the Advanced Space Propulsion Workshop Colorado November 2010.
A. Tziolas, “Project Icarus: Candidate Technologies for Interstellar Propulsion“, Presented at the Advanced Space Propulsion Workshop in Colorado Springs, Colorado (2010).
A. Tziolas, “Power and Computer Systems- Investigation Into Interstellar Flight“, Presented The British Interplanetary September, London, Daedalus after 30 Years Symposium, 30th September 2009.
B. Cress, “Icarus Interstellar’s New Icarus Institute for Interstellar Sciences”, Presented at the One Hundred Year Starship Conference in Orlando, October 2011.
D. Dulo, “Space Law: A Framework for an Interstellar Constitution“, Presented at the One Hundred Year Starship Conference in Houston, September 2012.
E. Davis, “Faster-Than-Light Space Warps: What’s It All About?”, Presented at Starship Congress in Dallas, August 2013.
F. Winterberg, “Cheating the Death of the Sun by Relativistic Interstellar Spaceflight”, Presented at Starship Congress in Dallas, August 2013.
G. Cleaver, “The Quirks of Quark Engines”, Presented at Starship Congress in Dallas, August 2013.
G. Cleaver, “Spacecraft Propulsion via Chiral Fermion Pair Production From Parallel Electric and Magnetic Fields“, Presented at the One Hundred Year Starship Conference in Houston, September 2012.
H. Bright, “Dream of Starships”, Presented at Starship Congress in Dallas, August 2013.
H. Rezabek, “(Xrisk 101) Existential Risk for Interstellar Advocates”, Presented at Starship Congress in Dallas, August 2013.
H. White, “Warp Field Physics: An Update”, Presented at Starship Congress in Dallas, August 2013.
I. Crawford, “Project Icarus: Scientific Case and Target Selection“, Presented at the One Hundred Year Starship Conference in Orlando, October 2011.
I. Crawford, “Scientific Objectives”, Presented at the One Hundred Year Starship Conference in Orlando, October 2011.
I. Crawford, “Target Selection”, Presented at the One Hundred Year Starship Conference in Orlando, October 2011.
J. Benford, “Sail Ships“,Presented at Starship Congress in Dallas, August 2013.
J. Benford, ““Shouting to the Galaxy: The METI Debate”, Presented at Starship Congress in Dallas, August 2013.
J. Benford, “Recent Developments in Interstellar Beam-Driven Sails”, Presented at the One Hundred Year Starship Conference in Orlando, October 2011.
J.R. French, “A Review of the Daedalus Main Propulsion System”, Presented at the One Hundred Year Starship Conference in Orlando, October 2011.
J. French, “Project Icarus: A Technical Review of Gas Core Nuclear Rocket Engines“, Presented at the Advanced Space Propulsion Workshop Colorado November 2010.
J. Ritter, “Nanoarcsecond Exoplanet Imaging“, Presented at Starship Congress in Dallas, August 2013.
K.F. Long, “Rise of the Starships”, Presented at Starship Congress in Dallas, August 2013.
K.F.Long, “Project Icarus: Specific Power for Interstellar Missions Using Inertial Confinement Fusion Propulsion“, Presented Nuclear & Emerging Technologies for Space (NETS) Conference, Houston, Texas, February 2012.
K.F.Long, “Interstellar Travel, Project Icraus & Flying Closer to Another Star“, Presented North East Essex Astronomy Convention, England, November 2011.
K.F.Long, A.Crowl & R.Obousy, “The Enzmann Starship: History & Engineering Appraisal“, Presented at the British Interplanetary World Ship Symposium, August 2011.
K.F.Long, “Project Icarus – Flying Closer to Another Star, Project Update“, Presented The British Interplanetary Society, London, March 2011.
K.F.Long, “Project Icarus: Nuclear Fusion Space Propulsion“, Presented at Cosford II Conference, RAF Cosford, Telford, England, 2011.
K.F.Long, “Project Icarus: Optimisation of Nuclear Fusion Propulsion for Interstellar Missions“, Presented 61st International Astronautical Congress, Prague, October 2010.
K.F.Long, “Project Icarus: Son of Daedalus – Flying Closer to Another Star“, Presented The British Interplanetary September, London, Daedalus after 30 Years Symposium, 30th September 2009.
K.F.Long, “Inertial Confinement Fusion & Antimatter Catalyzed Fusion for Space Propulsion“, Presented UK Space Conference, Charterhouse, 4th April 2009.
M. Mongo, “Build a Starship”, Presented at Starship Congress in Dallas, August 2013.
M. Stanic, “Fusion Propulsion Comparison”, Presented at the One Hundred Year Starship Conference in Orlando, October 2011.
P. Galea, “Machine Learning and the Starship – A Match Made in Heaven”, Presented at the One Hundred Year Starship Conference in Orlando, October 2011.
P.Galea, R.Swinney, “Project Icarus: Mechanisms for enhancing the stability of gravitationally lensed interstellar communications”, Presented Prague 61st IAC September 2010.
P.Galea, “Project Icarus: Solar sail technology for the Icarus interstellar mission”, Presented in New York at the International Symposium on Solar Sailing 2010.
P. Tsvetkov, “Direct Fission Fragment Energy Conversion for Near-Term Interstellar Exploration”, Presented at Starship Congress in Dallas, August 2013.
R. Adams, “Building, Repairing and Upgrading Vehicles in Space“, Presented at Starship Congress in Dallas, August 2013.
R. Adams, “Mission Architectures for Achieving 0.1-0.2c Velocities”, Presented at the One Hundred Year Starship Conference in Orlando, October 2011.
R. Adams, “Conceptual Design of a Z-Pinch Fusion Propulsion System“, Presented at the Advanced Space Propulsion Workshop Colorado November 2010.
R. Adams, “Two-Burn Escape Maneuver for High delta-V Capable Spacecraft“, Presented at the Advanced Space Propulsion Workshop Colorado November 2010.
R. Armstrong, “Project Persephone”, Presented at Starship Congress in Dallas, August 2013.
R. Freeland, “Trading a Mag-Sail vs. Fusion for Full Deceleration”, Presented at Starship Congress in Dallas, August 2013.
R. Freeland, “Fission-Fusion Hybrid Fuel for Interstellar Propulsion”, Presented at the One Hundred Year Starship Conference in Orlando, October 2011.
R.K. Obousy, “Building an Interstellar Community”, Presented at Starship Congress in Dallas, August 2013.
R.K. Obousy, “Project Icarus: Antimatter Catalyzed Fusion Propulsion For Interstellar Missions”, Presented at the Nuclear and Emerging Technologies for Space Conference, The Woodlands, Texas March 21-23, 2012.
R.K. Obousy, “Project Icarus: A 21st Century Interstellar Starship Study”, Presented at the AIAA Lunch and Learn session, Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas 2012.
R.K. Obousy, “A 21st Century Interstellar Starship Study”, Presented at the One Hundred Year Starship Conference in Orlando, October 2011.
R.K. Obousy, “A Review of Interstellar Starship Designs“, Presented at the One Hundred Year Starship Conference in Orlando, October 2011.
R.K. Obousy, “Interstellar Travel and Possible Propulsion Spin-offs for Mars Exploration”, Presented at the 14th Annual International Mars Society Convention. “Mars, The Next Frontier“. August 4-7, 2011.
R.K. Obousy, “Project Icarus: A 21st Century Interstellar Starship Study”, Presented at the Tennessee Valley Interstellar Workshop November 28 & 29, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, 2011.
R.K. Obousy, “Project Icarus: A Technical Review of the Daedalus Propulsion Configuration and Some Engineering Considerations for the Icarus Vehicle”, Presented at the Advanced Space Propulsion Workshop in Colorado Springs, Colorado (2010).
R.K. Obousy, “Interstellar Propulsion: Challenges and Developments 30 Years After Daedalus”, Presented at the Headquarters of the British Interplanetary Society, London, England, September 30th 2009.
R. Swinney, “Project Icarus”, Presented at Starship Congress in Dallas, August 2013.
R. Swinney, “Initial Considerations in Exploring the Interstellar Roadmap”, Presented at the One Hundred Year Starship Conference in Orlando, October 2011.
R. Swinney, “Navigational and Guidance Requirements of an Interstellar Spacecraft”, Presented at the One Hundred Year Starship Conference in Orlando, October 2011.
R.Swinney, K.Long, P.Galea, “Project Icarus: Son of Daedalus – Flying Closer to Another Star – a Technical Update and Programme Review. Presented Prague 61st IAC September 2010. Presented Prague 61st IAC.
S. Baxter, “Star Probes and ET Intelligence”, Presented at the One Hundred Year Starship Conference in Orlando, October 2011.
S. Summerford, “Colonized Interstellar Vessel: Conceptual Master Planning”, Presented at the One Hundred Year Starship Conference in Houston“, September 2012.
Internal Research and Studies
Project Icarus Phase 3 Research (2010-2011)
Ian Crawford Rough Guide to the Solar Neighbourhood
Ian Crawford A Review of Local Interstellar Medium Properties of Relevance For Space Missions to the Nearest Stars
Kelvin Long A Concept Design Review of Daedalus-like Vehicles for A Variety of Target Missions
Kelvin Long Use of external nuclear pulse technology for initial boost phase of mission
Richard Obousy Analysis for the two-burn manoeuvre for increased Delta V.
Robert Freeland Development of a Baseline Excel Model for the Daedalus Design
Robert Freeland Evaluation of Software to Model the Icarus Mission
Robert Freeland Evaluation of Failure Rate Analysis Frameworks for Complex Projects
Kelvin Long Use of Medusa Sail for Mission Deceleration
Kelvin Long Inventory of Daedalus vehicle systems and mass breakdown.
Adam Crowl Assessment of Daedalus vehicle inventory and mass breakdown
Andreas Hein Multidisciplinary Design Optimisation of the Icarus spacecraft.
Kelvin Long Initial Considerations for (pre-design) Vehicle configuration Layout Options
Kelvin Long An Initial Review of Inertial Confinement Fusion for Space Propulsion
Kelvin Long A Review of Fusion Research Facilities & the Scalability for Space Applications
Richard Obousy Evaluation of Antimatter Catalysed Fusion for Interstellar propulsion
Richard Obousy Comparison of the Possible Fusion Ignition Systems for Spacecraft Propulsion
Adam Crowl Analysis of Interstellar Propulsion application of IEC.
Adam Crowl Analysis of Interstellar Propulsion application of MCF.
James French A Preliminary review of the Daedalus primary engine components and consideration given to alternatives.
Milos Stanic Analysis of Plasma Jet driven Magneto-Inertial Fusion as Potential Primary Propulsion Driver for the Icarus Project
Milos Stanic Nuclear Fusion Propulsion Concepts Comparison
Milos Stanic Preliminary Design Analysis of Magnetic Nozzles for Fusion Propulsion
Kelvin Long A Short Comparision of General Fusion Scheme Options for Space Propulsion
Kelvin Long A Brief Consideration of Shock Ignition for the Main Engine Energy Generation Mechanism
Kelvin Long Optimisation of Nuclear Fusion Propulsion for Interstellar Missions
Andreas Tziolas Secondary Propulsion Methods and Technologies for Interstellar Missions
Pat Galea Preliminary assessment of the use of solar sail technology in different parts of the mission profile
Adam Crowl Hybrid Mag-Beam/fusion plasma deceleration for system probe.
Adam Crowl Assessing Mag-Sail & Plasma magnet for Braking
Adam Crowl Bae Photon Thrusters for Sub-probes Rob Swinney An investigation into attitude control systems and the links to thruster technology and computer systems.
James French Evaluation of application of the gas core nuclear reactor to the Icarus mission.
Jim Benford Microwave Propelled Sails for Starwisp Probe Deceleration
Jim Benford Cost-Optimization of Microwave Propelled Sails for Deceleration of Probes
Kelvin Long Use of external nuclear pulse technology for initial boost phase of mission
Kelvin Long Concept design considerations for fuel and fuel acquisition – Part 1.
Richard Obousy Could Antimatter be Generated and Stored in Sufficient Quantities to Assist with an Interstellar Mission?
Richard Obousy Analysis of the Possible use of Ultradense Deuterium as Starship Fuel
Adam Crowl Concept design considerations for fuel and fuel acquisition – Part 3
Andreas Hein Architecture development for atmospheric Helium-3 mining of the outer solar system
Pat Galea A brief review of electronics technology used in spacecraft and with comparison to Daedalus
Adam Crowl A Preliminary Review of Potential Aerospace Materials for Applications in an Interstellar Mission.
Adam Crowl A Review of Materials Used in Historical Spacecraft Missions.
Adam Crowl Capacitors for “Icarus” Andreas Tziolas Space Power Technologies for Interstellar Flight.
Pat Galea The Use of Relay Stations for Interstellar Communications
Pat Galea Using the Gravitational Lens to Improve the Transmission of Interstellar Probe Data
Pat Galea Optical Lasers for Interstellar Communications
Pat Galea Radio Frequency Systems for Interstellar Communications
Dimos Homatas Strategies for secure data return.
Kelvin Long Preliminary Calculations for the Transmission of an Optical Laser Signal Through the Daedalus Engine Exhaust Plume
Andreas Tziolas Fuel Tanks as Relays
Rob Swinney A modern review of navigation & guidance requirements for an interstellar mission.
Rob Swinney A review of astrometric measurements relevant to an interstellar mission.
Andreas Tziolas Electronics and Computer Hardware Considerations for Space Missions
Dimos Homatas On board software design philosophy and testing approach.
Andreas Tziolas Distributive computing software for system reliability*
Andrew Presby Environmental Hazards to Interstellar Spacecraft.*
Andrew Presby Environmental Hazard Mitigation Options for Interstellar Spacecraft.*
Andreas Tziolas Multi-Megawatt Thermal Bus Management System
Pat Galea A review of current ‘ground’ support infrastructure for deep space missions
Richard Osborne Architecture analysis for post launch support of interstellar starships.
Kelvin Long A Review of Historical Solar System Explorers & Scientific Drivers
Ian Crawford An initial consideration of science objectives, and associated payload elements, for representative mission profiles
Phillip Reiss Review of Historical Planetary Probes.
Phillip Reiss Small Satellite Technology.
Kelvin Long Some Initial Considerations for Payload Options for the Icarus Missions
Kelvin Long Preliminary Design of a Charged Particle Detector & Plasma Analyzer
Andreas Hein Assessment of the Viability of a Space Elevator for Space Transportation during the next 100 Years
Richard Osborne Systems Architectures for interstellar starship construction infrastructure.
Richard Osborne The impact of SSTO introduction on interstellar starship construction.
Kelvin Long A First Look at Spacecraft Reliability Analysis Using An Approximate Physics Model.
Andreas Tziolas Operational Disciplines for Effective Spacecraft Risk and Repair Assessment Adam Crowl In-situ Parts Manufacturing via Rapid Prototyping.
Phillip Reiss Repair Warden Technology.
Andreas Hein Stakeholder analysis and prediction of technological maturity of key technologies
Andreas Hein Evaluation of technological/social and political Projections for the next 100 Years
Andreas Hein Initial considerations for design realisation & technological maturity.
Richard Osborne An overview of the impact of a technological singularity on inner solar system infrastructure
Robert Freeland Evaluation of Financial Drivers for the Icarus Mission
Stephen Baxter The Challenge of Longevity
Stephen Baxter Three Roads to the Stars
Kelvin Long Exploring the Interstellar Roadmap using the Icarus Pathfinderand Icarus Starfinder Probe Concepts
Kelvin Long The First Unmanned Interstellar Mission, Robotic Expansion & Technological Growth
Kelvin Long Initial considerations for qualifying the Icarus design solution
Project Icarus Phase 4 Research (2011-2012)
Adams, M2. Mission Analysis (DARPA Orlando 2011)
Mission Architectures for Achieving 0.1-0.2c Velocities
Note: This paper was submitted as a NASA MSFC contribution, but is included here for interest.
Adams, M2. Mission Analysis
Initial Solar System Escape Plots
A first look at solar system escape using Copernicus, while noting the issue of Earth irradiation caused by firing the main engine from Earth Orbit. A starting mass of 1000 mT, a thrust of 20kN, Isp of 30 ksec is assumed, reaching an escape velocity of a 85 km/sec. This work is ongoing.
Adams, M2. Mission Analysis,
Enabling Missions Vs Propulsion Technologies
A first look at parametric trajectory analysis for deep space and interstellar missions. By plotting Specific Impulse against Specific Power a plot describing Enabled Missions Vs. Propulsion Technologies can be derived. This work is ongoing.
Baxter, Fogg M1. Astronomical Target
Computational Modeling of the Alpha Centauri System
After motivations from Baxter on utilizing the Avatar Alpha Centauri system model, Technical Consultant Martyn Fogg produced detailed simulations of the possible planetary system formations around AC, which was subsequently rendered in Celestia by Adrian Mann. This work is ongoing.
Baxter, M2. Mission Analysis
Icarus at Alpha Centauri: Options for Tour Trajectories and Subprobe Deployment
Preliminary conclusions are that the best way to explore any Proxima system may be with a flyby released early in the interstellar cruise, while an analysis of Hohmann-ellipse minimum-energy trajectories suggests that minimal-energy secondary propulsion systems may be sufficient for the exploration of the close-in A-B systems.
Baxter, M19. Design Realization and Technological Maturity
Validating Daedalus: A Proposal for Short Term Reprioritization
A short-term exercise is proposed in validating the Project Daedalus design, as a way of informing key Project Icarus decision point in the design process. This work is now pursued in detail as the interim Daedalus Validation Phase (DVP).
Baxter, M20. Design Certification (DARPA Orlando 2011)
Interstellar Spaceprobes and Encounters with Extraterrestrial Intelligence
Contact with ETI is a low probability but high impact event, and the philosophy should be that existing systems, especially comms and science suites, should be adapted for the eventuality, rather than dedicated systems added to the design. Options following detection are sketched here.
Benaryoa, M7. Structures and Materials,
Examination of First-Order Evolution of Daedalus Base-line by Materials Replacement
Preliminary analysis shows our best choice of materials is still Mo and W in a more advanced form, perhaps as a composite alloy, and processed to improve mechanical and thermal properties and lifetimes. Several cutting edge technologies are reviewed and design hotspots identified.
Benford, M4. Primary Propulsion (DARPA Orlando 2011)
Starship Sails Propelled by Cost-Optimized Directed Energy
Several starship point concepts are presented which use microwave propelled sails, with focus on costs scaling. System design is based on microwave, millimeter wave and laser technologies at today’s costs.
Benford, M5. Secondary Propulsion
Beamed Energy Propelled Sails for Deceleration of Sub-Probes
The use of sails for deceleration of sail probes from a fusion-powered starship is examined. The results are that <10% of light speed can be subtracted only for very small payloads using sails well beyond the state-of-the-art driven by very high power beams. Particle beams, which convert energy, not just momentum when striking the sail, will be more efficient, more practical.
Bixler, M18. Vehicle Risk and Repair
Vehicle Design Philosophy for the Icarus Probe
In this study we consider, (a) internal and external threats to vehicle, (b) spacecraft design to meet these threats (c) consideration of failure modes, both structural and systems (d) systems that must “play through” a threat event, and (e) call to attention the need to know the likely vibration characteristics of various operational modes-acceleration.
Ceyssens, M8. Power Systems
Space Nuclear Reactors and Nuclear Batteries
The current state of space validated nuclear reactors and nuclear batteries (RTGs) are outlined. The SAFE-400 heat-pipe controlled reactor project operating at Los Alamos is found to have one of the highest specific power at 195 We/kg.
Ceyssens, M13. Thermal Control
Cooling System Induced Limitations On The Maximum Acceleration Of Nuclear Rocket Based Spacecraft
A first order model on waste heat disposal in spacecraft was used to determine the influence of engine efficiency on maximum acceleration, given a certain maximum operating temperature and radiator mass density. The model was applied to the nuclear fusion powered Daedalus interstellar probe design. (Recommend revisiting to apply correct 1st and 2nd stage pellet burn-up fractions of 0.175 and 0.133 respectively).
Crawford, M14. Science (DARPA Orlando 2011)
Project Icarus: Scientific Case and Target Selection
The scientific objectives of an interstellar space mission to a nearby star are described and prioritized. Target selection is weighted against vehicle range capabilities and the availability of viable target stars in the local interstellar neighborhood.
Crawford, M14. Science / M15. Instrumentation and Payload
Preliminary Thoughts on the Selection of Probes and Instruments for Icarus
An outline of probes and scientific instruments required for Icarus to fulfill its overall scientific mission of (a) exploring a nearby star, (b) its attendant planetary system, and (c) the intervening interstellar medium. Total Icarus payload mass 150‐210 tonnes: 24% for science payload, 26% for sub‐probe intra‐system propulsion requirements, and 50% payload structural and infrastructural elements. Final estimates require a validation of Icarus’ main propulsion capabilities.
Cress, M19. Design Realization (DARPA Orlando 2011)
Icarus Institute for Interstellar Studies (IIIS)
In this paper, a vision for an interstellar research center, is presented with focus on (a) an innovative planning and sustainability approaches, (b) personnel, feature sets, facilities and equipment needed to initiate and support an aggressive program of advanced interstellar vehicle and propulsion design and implementation, and (c) personal insights and economic considerations gained during prior planning for a private research institute in Nevada, home to more than 300 international scientists.
Cress, M19. Design Realization
Icarus Institute for Interstellar Studies – Survey Report
A fact finding survey was conducted as an initial fact finding document to be used in the preliminary planning stage for IIIS, the results of which are collated in this report. Information from this survey and budget considerations, align the various science missions and infrastructure requirements. The goal is to create a cutting edge, environmentally advanced scientific research center with facilities and equipment for multi-disciplined teams to operate in a flexible energy efficient spaces while sharing resources. Primary focus will be on the feature sets required by scientific teams in their laboratories and office environments.
Crowl, M4. Primary Propulsion
Estimation of Performance of ICF Vehicles
An examination of the ICF vehicle performance required for a given interstellar missions trip range is presented. The equations derived originally by Brian Halyard were used to determine maximum range for a given trip-time, but modified herein to produce specific power estimates and other features of ICF engine operation. It is found that power limitations on the mass-flow of purely fusion acceleration/deceleration by proposed single-staged ICF fusion-rocket designs limit the 100-year range to the nearer stars. Power levels and structural mass improvements would allow logarithmic improvements in range for given exhaust velocities, but higher exhaust velocities are still preferred.
Freeland, M2. Mission Analysis
Dirty Icarus: A Rapid Mission Design Experiment
A worksheet describing a “quick and dirty” decelerated mission to Alpha Centauri is presented, using approximate Daedalus vehicle figures and D. Total initial mass is 36,000 metric tonnes, while payload mass is 50 metric tonnes. Maximum speed is 4.8%c for a total trip time of 94.8 years. First stage is used for acceleration with 4.25 year burn time, while the second stage is used for deceleration with 5.37 year burn time using 75 Hz pulse rate frequency for both.
Freeland, M4. Primary Propulsion (DARPA Orlando 2011)
Fission-Fusion Hybrid Fuel for Interstellar Propulsion
This paper examines the use of Lithium Deuteride (Li6D) as a fuel for Icarus. It is found that Lithium deuteride provides 74.6% of the energy density of D-He3 per kilogram of fuel, but at a physical density almost ten times that of Daedalus’ cryogenically-preserved pellets (860 kg/m3 for 70% enriched Li6D vs. 89 kg/m3 for D-He3) without the need for cryogenic storage. Moreover, the underlying D-T fusion reaction proceeds at nearly 1000 times the rate of D-He3 at temperatures in the range of 100 million degrees, so burn up fractions can reasonably be expected to be higher once ignition is achieved. Neutronicity is examined and a novel Li6D pellet concept is presented.
French, M4. Primary Propulsion (DARPA Orlando 2011)
Review of Daedalus Main Propulsion
The Daedalus main propulsion system is critically reviewed, and design concerns noted. Amongst them are: (a) bootstrapping/inductive charging, (b) shock absorption, (c) pellet trajectory, (d) electron beams, (e) hardware fatigue, (f) energy storage, (g) structural and material issues, (h) magnetic nozzle design issues and plasma confinement, amongst many others. This work was pivotal in defining the need for validating Daedalus’ propulsion system.
Frierson, M4. Primary Propulsion (DARPA Orlando 2011)
Review of Antimatter Confinement Time Progress
Progress of antimatter containment technology is assessed, as background to antimatter catalyzed fusion and antimatter propulsion technologies. It is found that the Penning trap confinement experiments performed at the CERN (ALPHA Group) and the University of California in San Diego (UCSD) by Driscoll and Surko (separately) represent the current state of the art and should be monitored.
Galea, M11. Computing and Data Management (DARPA Orlando 2011)
Machine Learning and The Starship—A Match Made In Heaven
This paper looks at machine learning technologies currently deployed in non-aerospace contexts, such as book recommendation systems, dating websites and social network analysis, and investigates the ways in which they can be adapted for applications in the starship.
Hale, M1. Astronomical Target (JBIS)
Kepler-22b And Icarus: What Does It Mean?
Exoplanet detection efforts to date are reviewed with focus on the discovery of Kepler-22b announced on December 5th, 2011 by the Kepler Spacecraft Team, as an important object detected within its host system’s circumstellar habitable zone. The importance of this object is discussed along with its relation to Project Icarus and the continuation of exoplanet surveys.
Hein, M2. Mission Analysis and Performance
Comparing the Maturity of Icarus Concepts and Architectures
Careful concept development is vital for the later success of a system. However, the level of detail and the maturity of concepts are usually quite heterogeneous and difficult to compare. This paper gives an introduction to two maturity metrics that have potential to enable a comparison between different far-future concepts and to assess the maturity of their architectures: A modification to JPL’s Concept Maturity Level (CML), called Far-Future-CML and the newly introduced Architecture Maturity Level (AML). This work is ongoing.
Hein, M5. Secondary Propulsion
Determination of Required Properties of Magnetic-Sails for the Deceleration with Respect to Proxima Centauri
A mass-saving concept for propellant-less deceleration is the use of a magnetic sail. A superconducting coil generates a magnetic field which ionizes and diverts interstellar hydrogen. This process results in an impulse on the spacecraft, decelerating it. This paper compares fusion acceleration – magnetic sail deceleration, with a pure fusion based acceleration and deceleration mission for Proxima Centauri. Trip time and payload mass are chosen as goal variables for the optimization model. Using an analytical model for the magnetic sail and a numerical model for the fusion propulsion, break-even points for each option are calculated. It is shown that a fusion – magnetic sail combination is able to carry a higher payload mass for trip times up to 86 – 92 years.
Hein, M19. Design Realization (DARPA Orlando 2011)
Evaluation of technological/social and political Projections for the next 100-300 Years and Implications for an Interstellar Mission
Implications from studies of the global political, social and technological development for the next 100-300 years are assessed in the context of the development of an interstellar probe. For this purpose, first, relevant scenarios are selected, where the Gross Domestic Product is the indicator of choice. Second, different funding patterns from past space programs are derived in order to estimate the funding distribution over time for an interstellar program. Finally, integrated scenarios are developed and recommendations made how different funding structures shift the estimated earliest date where an interstellar program can be initiated.
Homatas, M11. Computing (DARPA Orlando 2011)
Autonomous Software and Decision Making Processes for Icarus
This study explored the mission’s requirements for long term autonomy. Some options include the use of artificial intelligence, long term data accumulation, decision making algorithms and processes including decision trees, game theory, operation research and most important, where all those tools fit in the mission’s profile. The use of Agent-Oriented Software Engineering (AOSE), or “Agents” as autonomous programs that have some form of perception of the environment and are programmed to act upon their perceptions is suggested as an implementation of machine intelligence for Icarus’ command and control software architecture.
Karam, M12. Particle and Radiation Control
Radiation Exposure from Astronomical Sources
Two studies are presented for directed reading: (a) Gamma And Neutrino Radiation Dose From Gamma Ray Bursts And Nearby Supernovae (Karam, 2001)and (b) Terrestrial Radiation Exposure From Supernova-Produced Radioactivities (Karam, 2002) as relevant to human and robotic interstellar exploration missions. This work is ongoing.
Long, M3. Vehicle Configuration (JBIS)
Nuclear Fusion Space Propulsion and the Icarus Leviathan Concept
An overview of nuclear space propulsion is given with attention to some key starship design and engineering efforts to date (Bussard, Forward, Orion, VISTA, Longshot, Daedalus, Icarus). The Leviathan concept is also described, which is general vehicle design experiment, using two acceleration stages using D/D and D/He3 to achieve the top speed of 6.3%c and followed by a two deceleration stages using p/B11 and Medusa sail.
Long, M4. Primary Propulsion (NETS 2012 Paper)
Specific Power For Interstellar Missions Using Inertial Confinement Fusion Propulsion
This paper considers the range of specific powers for an interstellar mission in the application of inertial confinement fusion propulsion type systems. These methods are being examined for the recent Project Icarus which aims to evolve the Daedalus probe to an improved design. This work was presented at the 2012 Nuclear Emerging Technologies for Space (NETS) conference, The Woodlands, Houston, Texas, March 2012.
Long, M19. Design Realization (JBIS)
Project Icarus: The First Unmanned Interstellar Mission, Robotic Expansion & Technological Growth
This paper discusses the important role of ‘disruptive technology’ in altering the assessment on when the first unmanned interstellar probe mission is possible. Historical estimates suggest that such a mission is likely possible in the 23rd or 24th century. This paper argues that if such assessments also consider the role of high-growth exponential technology trends then in fact the first unmanned mission may be possible much earlier.
Long, M19. Design Realization (JBIS)
Interstellar Institute for Aerospace Research: A Concept Proposal
This paper was originally a response to a US DARPA solicitation1 requesting information for the 100 Year Starship Study.An expanded version is here presented. Preliminary ideas for a (long term) research model and Interstellar Institute for Aerospace Research (IIAR) are discussed.
Long, M19. Design Realization (JBIS)
Project Icarus: The Origins and Aims Of The Study
A brief summary is presented on the origins and aims of Project Icarus, the joint British Interplanetary Society (BIS) and Tau Zero Foundation (TZF) theoretical engineering study for the design of an unmanned interstellar probe. This paper is intended to represent an introduction to the set of technical papers presented in this special issue as well as discussing some of the early history regarding the formation of Project Icarus.
Long, M19. Design Realization (JBIS)
The Interstellar Roadmap: Planning Ahead
A interstellar roadmap is presented for achieving robotic interstellar probes within 100 years and human interstellar exploration within 150 years. Five overall development phases are proposed, adapted from Forward, 1976: (a) Phase 1 (15 years) mission definition studies, (b) Phase 2 (15 years) feasibility experiments of interstellar enabling propulsion systems, (c) Phase 3 (15-20 years) robotic probes launched, (d) Phase 4 (15-20 years) human-rated deep space propulsion systems developed, (e) Phase 5 (20-30 years) development and launch of human or AI interstellar exploration mission.
Obousy, M4. Primary Propulsion (NETS 2012 Paper)
A Review of Interstellar Starship Designs
Interstellar starship propulsion, mission objectives and critical design considerations are reviewed. Energy requirements and propulsion system details are described for Daedalus, VISTA, Beamed propulsion LightSails and Enzmann Starships.
Obousy, M19. Design Realization and Technological Maturity
Educational Aspects of Project Icarus and the Role of Public Understanding
An interstellar mission will be neither cheap nor easy to accomplish. One critical component to the actual construction of an interstellar starship will be communicating and educating the public to the values of such a mission. This study will summarize the various efforts that the team is employing to convey our message to the public, and attempt to measure the efficacy of our methods.
Shankar, M9. Communications and Telemetry
Main Vehicle to Sub-Probe Communication
This report contains initial considerations for the technologies that can be used for communication between the Icarus main probe and the sub- probes . As the positions of the sub-probes of the Icarus Vehicle is not exactly known, discussion is presented examining feasibility of different technologies for the communication between the main probe and sub-probe approximately considering them to be at a distance of 100AU. RF and Optical communication link is discussed and compared and found optical link as the best option to choose for both inter probe communication which is as good a link for Space Craft to Ground (Earth) communication.
Smith, M10. Navigation
Autonomous Navigation Report
This document provides an overview of the state of planning and research for Icarus navigation at Phase 4. Suggestions for particular attention include (a) developing positioning techniques that don’t depend on the assumption, made by existing methods in the solar system, that one target celestial body is much further away than the others, (b) eveloping cold-start techniques that would survive a system shutdown or damage to the craft or instrumentation during the century-long transit from the sun to the star, and (c) evaluating the statistics, costs and benefits of collision avoidance techniques.
Stanic, M4. Primary Propulsion (Acta Astronomica)
Analysis Of Plasma Jet Driven Magneto-Inertial Fusion As Potential Primary Propulsion Driver For The Icarus Probe
PJMIF involves a salvo of converging plasma jets that form a uniform liner, which compresses a magnetized target to fusion conditions. It is an Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF)-Magnetic Confinement Fusion (MCF) hybrid approach that has the potential for a multitude of benefits over both ICF and MCF, such as lower system mass and significantly lower cost. This paper concentrates on a thermodynamic assessment of basic performance parameters necessary for utilization of PJMIF as a candidate propulsion system for the Project Icarus mission. These parameters include: specific impulse, thrust, exhaust velocity, mass of the engine system, mass of the fuel required amongst others.
Stanic, M6. Fuel and Fuel Acquisition (DARPA Orlando 2011)
Fuel Choices for Icarus
This M6 conversation thread is a cursory view of current opinions of the Project Icarus team on the matter of fuel choice. This report goes through all the emails and tries to summarize important ideas and opinions of the team members. Questions asked in the first email were: “what is, in your opinion, the first choice of fuel, why do you think it has advantage over other fuel options and what do you think are potential issues with the fuel?”. The discussions lead to several key ideas which have not been addressed in previous studies. This work is ongoing.
Swinney, M2. Mission Analysis (DARPA Orlando 2011)
Exploring The Interstellar Roadmap Using The Icarus Pathfinder And Starfinder Probe Concepts
We introduce the Icarus Pathfinder Probe, a mission to 1,000 AU requiring a cruise velocity of between 50 – 100 AU/year. We also present the outline for the Icarus Starfinder Probe, designed to go to distances of 10,000-50,000 AU. In this paper we present the baseline concepts for these missions, which may be iterated to more credible configurations in the future in line with the Project Icarus timescales to complete the final Project Icarus study report by late 2014.
Swinney, M10. Navigation
Modeling Daedalus Attitude Control
In this study we analyze the attitude control of the Daedalus system from’ Proportion System Part 2B’ by Alan Bond and Anthony R Martin of the Daedalus papers. The intention is to be able to add this detail to the full model of Daedalus by Freeland and in doing so inform Project Icarus. The derivation of the control system and the calculations made in the Daedalus paper are analyzed in an accompanying worksheet, noting unresolved issues and methods of resolution.
Tziolas, M12. Particle and Radiation Control
Simulation and Optimization of Microchannel Plate (MCP) Compositional and Neutron Optical Properties
Using only compositional information of microchannel plates built by X-ray Optical Systems (XOS) at the National institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), algorithms were developed to reverse engineer the coefficients optical characteristics needed to design neutron refraction MCPs. This work shows promise for the development of light weight neutron scattering systems to be used in the place of heavy neutron thermalization shielding. The next steps in this research is to (a) establish the expected neutron spectrum from the main engine, (b) design appropriate MCP neutron deflection system and (c) comparatively assess its performance against traditional neutron shielding approaches.
Tziolas, M5: Secondary Propulsion
Ultra-High Specific Impulse Indium FEEP Thruster for Interstellar Precursor Exploration
A Field Emission Electric Propulsion (FEEP) system using Indium as propellant has been developed a team working at FOTEC Austria and Thales, Germany. A study applying this system as main propulsion for precursor interstellar exploration missions was presented at 100YSS Orlando in 2011. Tziolas worked closely with the developers to assess the performance and scalability of the system with the following notable conclusions: (a) InFEEP has demonstrated operation at very high specific impulse (> 10,000 s), (b) the Indium propellant is stored in solid state, (c) Indium melts at ~ 157°C easily attainable by RTGs, (d) ionization and acceleration taking place in one step with the same electric field, allowing for very low thermal losses, (e) micronewton ACS InFEEP systems have been space validated on MIR are being considered for LISA Pathfinder, (f) specific power for is 80-100 W/mN of thrust (g) the design is grid-less, allowing for very long longevity, thus enabling their use as main thrusters, (h) is capable of variable Isp/thrust which is approximately linear to emitter voltage, (i) using a space nuclear reactor capable of ~MW, the system can be scaled to use a cluster of Ultra-FEEPs with 5 N thrust. The system is thus found to be one of the most flexible options for (A) supporting Icarus’ Navigation module and (B) propulsion for Icarus probes and (C) telecommunications relays. Note: Most of this information is proprietary to the Ultra-FEEP team, who have however agreed to work with Icarus to provide additional information as needed.
Tziolas, M11. Computing and Data Management
Distributed Computer Architecture: Hardware and Software Characterization
In this paper a justification for employing distributed computer architectures is presented. A proposed hardware implementation is discussed, which uses wirelessly interconnected but otherwise independent computational nodes, to reduce wiring complexity. It is suggested that command and control operations use Agent-Oriented Software Engineering, for redundancy and for parallelizing system operations. Emergent swarm robotic behaviors may be useful for scaling probe instrumentation and requirements when using discretized subprobe components, along the lines of the DARPA F6 system currently in development. A capstone computer program in the form of a Science Plan Integrator (SPI) system for Icarus was proposed as the overarching development project focus for the M11 Computing and Data Management module.
Tziolas, M19. Design Realization (DARPA Orlando 2011)
Starflight Academy: Education in Interstellar Engineering
An analysis of the long term impact of a prestigious multidisciplinary study program in Interstellar Engineering on space research and development is presented. The motivations, curriculum design philosophy and the expected educational outcome is presented along with estimates of the employability of these new graduates, which are found to be highly desirable to a wide range of industries and research directions.